Just for fun I'll post my study guide for Modern Europe:
Nicholas I- wrote a letter to Queen Victoria, describing the collapse of the old order, saying their two countries were the only ones still in order. Only England and Russia don't have a serious threat to their status quo.
Cieli- party music, or tells a story of national pride of the past in Gaelic.
Risorgimento- the Italian movement for freedom.
Charles Albert- the king of Piedmont.
*the revolutions began on Jan. 12, 1848 on the Italian peninsula and the island of Sicily. By Feb. 1 Charles of Piedmont and the Pope Pius IX discussed how to unite Italy.
Louis Phillipe- king of France at the time, refused to move toward republicanism.
Francois Guizot- was also against republicanism/allowing everyone to vote.
Feb. 21, 1848- the govt. outlawed banquets of people getting together and discussing a new republic. The people barracaded the streets. Louise Phillipe called out the national guard and demands them to crush the people, most of the refused. Guizot orders his troops to surround his property which was being invaded. 20 demonstrators are killed and the guards parade their bodies through the city as a warning. The people erupt even more. Louis Phillipe fled to England. The people took over the Chamber of Deputies, proclaimed France was now a republic. They made a provisional govt. of 10 men to take a nation whom had never had a republic and turn it into one. 7 were pure republican and 3 were socialist republicans.
Alphonse de LaMartine- a Catholic poet. He headed the executive board.--the executive board was so diverse they could never agree on anything. He was one of the pure republicans out of the 10 men.
Louis Blanc- one of the 3 socialist republicans.
Saint Simon- the man Louis Blanc got his ideas from.
Radical Collectives- later known as National Workshops. They were projects for unemployment relief. The people working in them were promised to make 2 francs a day. All the people streamed to Paris to work in one of these workshops, but there were too many people. The people became more angry.
Louis Cavaignac- sent from France to Algeria to stop a rebellion, he was successful.
Constitution of 1848- created a president in France with a 4 year term. Also created a unicameral legislature. The president and the house were to be elected by universal manhood sufferage. The president had no veto power, therefore the house had the most power. The president cannot be re-elected.
*Candidates for election:
Louis Cavaignac- promises stability
Alexander Ledru-Rollin- a socialist
Alphonse De LaMartine- didn't have details, lofty words.
Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte- nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte I. He campaigned from outside the country. He doesn't clarify his position, but wins by a landslide. His father was Louis Phillipe. He later becomes unsatisfied with being president and wants to run again. On December 2, 1851 Napoleon takes over. He proclaims the creation of the 2nd French Empire and himself as Emporer Napoleon III. He crowned himself and his wife, not the pope. The people traded political liberty for stability for him. One of Napoleon's goals was to show off their wealth. He got rid of the poor people buildings and made Paris a city of successful, satisfied, and stable people. Napoleon became the example of success. He makes France respected once again, people felt safe and secure.
Eugenie- Napoleon's wife. She had to be very feminine to make Napoleon look more masculine.
Louis Phillipe- father of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte. He was placed King of Holland by Napoleon Bonaparte, his brother. He was also an author.
Napoleonic Ideas- written by Louis Phillipe, the book said Napoleon Bonaparte was misunderstood.
The Extinction of Capitalism- renamed to Extinction of Property. Written by Louis Phillipe.
Victor Hugo- wrote poems about France's accomplishments and past glory.
Adolphe Theirs- wrote first histories of French people; he was also a diplomat.
Arch de Triumph- was finished being built in 1836.
Pauline Roland- a highly respected newspaper editor. Sent to a prison camp for "plotting" to overthrow Napoleon, although she wasn't even in the country when this plotting happened.
*Napoleon had a gardner arrested and thrown in prison for planting red flowers, red was the color of revolution. Baron Hausmann- the architect that Napoleon hired to re-model Paris.
Cobden Chevalier Treaty- signed between Britain and France to trade freely, without tariff.
Credit Mobilier- the first investment bank, high stakes business.
Guiseppe Mazzini- an idealistic patriot, wanted the Italian peninsula to be united under one govt.
Venice, Lombardy, & Piedmont- unite together to try and unite Italy together, they fail, but aren't forgotten.
Metternich- in April of 1848 he falls from power in Vienna. The rebels created a rep. monarchy.
Franz Joseph- new leader of Austria. He wasn't enlightened, or a liberal, he was rather pragmatic.
Louis Kossuth- leads the Hungarian people, the Magyars. He wants them to have an independent state-Hungary. Doesn't happen, but they are recognized with Austria-Hungary.
Henry Bessamer- creates the Bessamer process- creates the ability to create a lot of steel at once.
Other inventions around this time:
*this created the emergence of materialism. materialism = economic expansion
Justus Liebig- pioneer of agricultural revolution, creates a more productive farm. After 1850 famines are no more.
Suez Canal- opens in 1869, sailors don't have to go all around Africa now.
*In 1850 there were 14,00 miles of track in all of Europe, there was no standardized width. By 1870 there was 80,000 miles of track and all of Europe except Spain and Russia agreed on the same gauge of track.
The Gold Standard- after the discovery of gold in the U.S. and Australia meant more gold available to the world. The more money available meant better stability.
Limited Liability- if an investor invests $100 in an invention, the only money they are responsible for is what they've invested. This causes industry to grow in every way, creates more materialism.
Samuel Smiles- one of the most popular authors, wrote Self-Help in 1859.
Self-help- written by Samuel Smiles in 1859. The book is about going from rags to riches.
Horatio Alger- wrote rags to riches stories.
Gustave Freytag- wrote Debit & Credit
Debit & Credit- written by Gustave Freytag. The book is about taking advantage of the industry.
*the authors of the rags to riches stories are not reflecting reality
Realists- the authors that reflected the reality of the industrial situation. These authors were:
Burial at Ornans- painted by Courbet. In describing Courbet's paintings the term realism was first used.
Thomas Eakins- American artist, painted sports, but wanted to know who was the heroic in America. He decided it was doctors and what they did. His most famous painting was a painting of a doctor in surgery, he portrays every aspect of what is going on.
Dr. Gross's Clinic- Eakins most famous painting, very detailed. The word gross came from this painting.
*people drifted from religion at this point. The working class had moved to the cities, which were dirty and crime filled. The people began questioning God, due to the influence of rationalism. The church didn't do well with the questioning of the scientists.
Pius IX- was not impressed with what was going on. Decided to come up with a response to the world.
Syllabus- issued by Pius IX, was a list of condemnations. He condemned the separation of the church and state, along with liberalism, rationalism, scientific/intellectual progress, and the belief that salvation was attainable without being a Catholic.
Doctrine of Papal Infallibility- a paper of fallibility, stated the pope was never wrong.
Anaximander- lived in the 6th century, describes the beginning of species from almost evolutionary descent, he is ignored.
George Buffon- in the 18th century he revised Anaximander's beliefs, he was a French naturalist.
Karl Von Linne- a French Biologist, revised evolution.
Linnaeus- a Swedish Botonist, believed in evolution.
Jean Lamark- (1809) argues for inheriting acquired characteristics. Said if the environment changed for the animal, the animal would change and its body would eventually change and this change would pass to the offspring, eventually becoming a new species.
Charles Darwin- wrote Origin of Species in 1820, but didn't publish it until 1859. He came from a small town, not wealthy or poor. Went to the University of Edinburgh to study medicine. While their he felt called to the ministry. He transferred to Cambridge, captivated by natural science. He graduated from Cambridge and gets an internship as a naturalist. He gets this job on a ship called the H.M.S. Beagle. The ship was on a science expedition. While studying he noticed the differences of plants and animals from one island to the next. He also studied fossils. With the help of Malthus' essay on population he decides weaker species cannot survive due to competition for food.
H.M.S. Beagle- the ship of the science expedition that Darwin went on.
Origin of Species- about natural selection. Individual plants and animals w/favorable characteristics will transmit what helps them stay alive to the next generation and what does not will not transmit. He may have waited to publish it b/c he didn't know if it was worth it since it was so controversial. When he does he is attacked from every direction. He also published it b/c someone else was also coming out with a similar theory.
August Weisman- a German whom attacked Darwin. Said characteristics could not be inherited.
Hugo de Vries- takes from Gregor Medel & Darwin, said Darwin was too conservative. He believed in radical mutation, whereas Darwin believed it took a long time and there were only minor changes.
Samuel Wilberforce- debated against Thomas Huxley.
Thomas Huxley- he was a extremist defender of Darwin, aka Darwin's bulldog. A critic of Christianity, came up with agnosticism, which was the belief that you cannot know about God if there was one. Due to him everyone believes Darwin was an atheist. He was an extremist associated with Darwin, but Darwin was not the same.
Das Kapita- refutes traditional capitalism, said it was unstable and self-destructive. He said it creates a revolution that would destroy it. Written by Karl Marx.
Karl Marx- born in the Rhineland, descendent of a long line of rabbis, but his father was not a rabbi and had converted to Christianity in order to participate in politics. Went to Berlin University, which was very elite. He used some of Hegel's ideas but denounced Hegel and the dialectic out of arrogance. After graduating from college he wrote for a paper which was eventually censored due to his articles. He was very critical about classes and working conditions, an imp. article was about a winery. He was exiled from Berlin. He was very self assured that he was right, this made him hard to get along with. He praised industry for the stuff they created, but criticized them for the conditions they created. He said nationalism was a bourgeoisie idea. He didn't want Communist Russian, China, etc. The problem with his theories was you didn't know how to make them work.
Georg F. Hegel- Marx was fascinated w/his philosophy. Hegel said the human development went through stages.
Dialectic- the human development through stages.
The Communist Manifesto- a sort of missions statement that said, "workers of the world unite, you have nothing to lose but your chains."
Friedrich Engels- his family was successful industrialists, had a factory in Manchester. Worked with Marx.
Scientific Socialism- what Marx does is theoretical, more theory than facts. History develops in stages---feudalism, capitalism, then socialism. These stages are always introduced by revolution. That's why capitalism is destructive.
Bourgeoisie- capitalists, factory owners
Proletariat- factory workers
*the peasants are left out of Marx' classes
International Workingman's Association- purpose was to unite workers and promote the cause. It later became the First International. Marx created it in 1864. Marx' arrogance also destroyed it.
Ferdinand Lassale- said we can do this legislatively. Marx said you aren't supposed to cooperate with a capitalist state, you are supposed to overthrow it.
Mikhail Bakunin- a leader of the I.M.A. and 1st International, went from radical socialism to anarchism.
Anarchism- an govt. system is corrupt, any state is dangerous, no matter what philosophical foundation.
*When countries begin to have Socialist parties:
*At first socialism had very little progress in Russia, Spain, and Italy. It didn't catch on in Russ b/c they were illiterate and an agricultural society (meaning they were still a feudal society). The Bolsheviks try to jump from feudalism to socialism, skipping capitalism.
The Socialist Revolutionary Party & The Social Democratic Society- the groups that try to stage the revolution in Russia.
Purists- led by Marx, said that you don't collaborate w/anyone to bring about change.
Revisionists- said you cooperate w/other parties to obtain better lives w/yourself and family. This is what caught on.
Eduard Bernstein- a member of the German Parliament, he was a revisionist.
Evolutionary Socialism- written by Bernstein. He criticized Das Kapita and Marx. He said things had been getting better and socialist should help.
Jean Joures- a member of the Chamber of Deputies in France, a revisionist.
Jules Guesde- attacks the idea of collaborating.
Fabians- socialists in Britain.
H.G. Wells- a member of the fabians, author of War of the Worlds and other books.
George Bernard Shaw- a fabian. He was a playwright.
*Purists became violent, terrorists. They targeted political officials.
Syndicalism- alike to socialism, but stressed unions of people, not individuals.
Leo Tolstoy- interested in theology and religion. Died in the early 20th century. In the last stages of his life he saw Jesus as a socialist, thought Christianity was a socialist religion.
Thomas More- an Englishman, wrote Utopia. Said he was inspired by Plato's Republic.
Robert Owen- from Scotland, lived in England. He founded New Lanark, near Glasgow. It was a mill town he turned into an experimental town that seemed successful, a sort of Utopia. It provided adequate housing, very progressive school systems, he wanted the children to feel safe, made workers profit sharers, they worked only 8 hour days. He also found New Harmony in the U.S., which didn't work.